MASHAAIKH SHAH ABDUL QUDDUS GANGOHI (rahmatullah alayh)
Nuzhah depicts his ancestral tree as follows: Shah Abdul Quddus
Bin Ismail Bin Safi Bin Nasirul Hanafi Radoli Gangohi. Some
say that his name was Ismail while his title was Shah Abdul
Quddus. He is, however, known by only his title. He was apparently
born in 860 Hijri. He excelled in both, Uloom-e-Zaahiriyyah
and Baatiniyyah. His obedience to the Sunnat was the loftiest
he, among the Khulafaa of Hadhrat Shaikh Aarif (rahmatullah
alayh), the perfection of his excellences was by the direct
Faidh-e-Roohaani (spiritual emanation or spiritual attention)
of Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Haq Radoli (rahmatullah alayh). Hadhrat
Abdul Quddus Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) thus writes in his
book, Anwaarul Uyoon: "Among the tassarufaat (spiritual
actions) of Hadhrat Ahmad Abdul Haq is that 50 years after his
demise he attended to the tarbiyat (spiritual training) of this
insignificant entity (i.e. Shaikh Abdul Quddus) by means of
his Roohaani Faidh."
Abdul Quddus Gangohi's son writes: "It was my father's
intention to become bay't somewhere else. However, Hadhrat Shaikh
Ahmad Abdul Haq Radoli instructed from Aalam-e-Kashf (the Realm
of Spiritual Revelatioin): 'Don't contemplate bay't at any other
place. I shall attend to your accomplishment (takmeel)."
Since Hadhrat Shah Abdul Quddus cherished the idea of becoming
physically bay't, Hadhrat Ahmad Abdul Haq Radoli (rahmatullah
alayh) referred him to his grandson, Shaikh Muhammad Bin Shaikh
Aarif (rahmatullah alayh).
Shaikh was initiated into the Silsilah both physical and spiritual
bay't, his Roohani Shaikh being Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Haq Radoli
(rahmatullah alayh). Beside this Shaikh of his, he had also
gained the mantle of khilaafate from Shaikh Qaasim Oodhi (rahmatullah
alayh) who was among the Akaabir of the Suharwardiyyah Silsilah.
He was a
born wali. He was a Saahib-e-Karaamaat from childhood. In the
beginning he did some farming. From the yield of the farm he
would first spend on the Fuqaraa. Hadhrat Gangohi's Matubaat
(letters) are famous. His Maktubaat brim with Ma'aarif (Divine
Knowledge of Subtleties). Since the Maktubaat arein the Farsi
language, they are not reproduced here. Those who are versed
in Farsi should study these Maktubaat in kitaabs such as Anwaarul
Aafireen. They will derive immense benefit there from. Hadhrat
Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) said: "Whenever
I experienced any uncertainty regarding Sulook, I would ascertain
the answer by reference to the Maktubaat."
works written by him is Anwaarul Uyoon which is divided into
seven chapters in which the realities, subtleties, and mysteries
of Sulook have been compiled. The first chapter is predominantly
devoted to the excellences of Hadhrat Abdul Haq (rahmatullah
alayh). The following too are his works: Ta'leeqaat ala Sharhis
Sahaa-if which is in the subject of Ilm-e-Kalaam (Islamic Philosophy)
and Haashiyatut Ta'arruf is a voluminous exegesis of Anwaariful
Ma'aarif. Much of his life is discussed in Lataa-if-e-Quddusi
which is the works of his son and Khalifah, Shaikh Ruknud Deen.
Many anecdotes of his life are also recorded in Mir'atul Asraar,
Iqtibaasu Anwaar and Anwaarul Aarifeen.
brief treatise lacks the scope for a detailed presentation of
Hadhrat Gangohi's life, I shall narrate a few anecdotes..
(stray thought) occurred to a Mureed of Hadhrat Shah Abdul Quddus
Gangohi. He thought that he had already gained whatever knowledge
(of Sulook) there was here (i.e. by Hadhrat Gangohi). He thought
that there are also other famous Mashaaikh and there was nothing
wrong in seeking divine knowledge elsewhere, hence he should
visit the other Mashaaikh as well. But he felt in improper to
reveal this thought to his Shaikh. Hadhrat Gangohi (rahmatullah
alayh) realised this either by way of kashf or some other signs.
Hence, he told the Mureed: "Brother! Allah Ta'ala says:
"Travel in the earth...". Therefore, if you for some
time wander a bit here and there, you will obtain some relaxation
as well as be honored with the ziyaaraat and barakaat of different
Mashaaikh and then it will not be wrong to enquire from anyone
about Allah's Name (i.e. Divine Knowledge)." In his heart
the mureed felt pleased at this coincidence. He took leave and
began his visiting spree. Every Shaikh whom he visited, instructed
him the same shaghl of Paas Anfaas which he had been given to
practice in the very initial stage. He was extremely perplexed,
thinking to himself: "Everyone to whom I go, begin me off
with Alif, Baa, Taa. Whatever else I had hitherto practiced
has become futile." Ultimately, feeling very embarrassed,
he returned to Hadhrat Shaikh Gangohi and repented. Hadhrat
said: "Brother, are you now satisfied? Now sit in solitude
and with undivided attention take Allah's Name."
Gauth Gawaaliyaari, the author of Jawaahir-e-Khamsah, was an
aamil. He was apparently a contemporary of Hadhrat Abdul Quddus
Gangohi. Once he sent some jinns to bring Hadhrat Gangohi to
him. Hadhrat Shaikh on this occasion was engrossed (in thikr)
in the masjid. The jinns arrived, but could not muster up the
courage to go to Hadhrat. When the Shaikh noticed someone, he
asked: "who is it?" The jinns replied: "Muhammad
Gauth wishes to see you, hence he has sent us. If you consent,
we shall take you without causing any inconvenience." Hadhrat
said: "I order you to bring Muhammad Gauth here."
The jinns obeyed. Taking hold of Muhammad Gauth they set off
to Hadhrat Gangohi. Muhammad Gauth said to the jinns: "What
is wrong? You were in subjection to me. Why this disobedience?"
The jinns responded: "With regard to others, we are obedient
to you, but not in regard to the Shaikh. As far as he is concerned,
we cannot obey you. They delivered him to Hadhrat Shaikh who
said: "Have you no shame?" Hadhrat severely reprimanded
him. Finally he became bay't to Hadhrat and attained a lofty
sprirtual status of divine proximity (i.e. he became a Saahib-e-Nisbat).
His grave is in Gawaaliyar.
Once a wealthy
and prominent personality of the community, who was also Hadhrat's
khaadim had invited the wealthy and the poor of the city to
attend the Walimah of his son. Hadhrat Gangohi (rahmatullah
alayh) presented himself in order to test the khaadim. He went
incognito. He changed his attire and arrived at night and sat
among the poor. Hadhrat Shaikh observed that the khaadim was
treating and attending to the rich and poor in the same way.
Hadhrat Shaikh remained seated among the poor, but the khaadim
did not have the remotest notion of his presence. Afterwards
when the khaadim came to Hadhrat (i.e. at the khaanqah), Hadhrat
displayed his displeasure. When the khaadim enquired the reason
of his displeasure, Hadhrat said: "I was at your gathering
of feasting, but you did not recognize me." The khaadim
presented the excuse of his inability to have recognized Hadhrat
because of the circumstances, which preludes recognition. Hadhrat
Shaikh said: "Why did you not perceive my fragrance? If
you could have perceived the fragrance, you would certainly
have recognized me in spite of the different garb. Since you
could not perceive the fragrance, it is clear that you lack
love for me." (The spiritual rationale of this attitude
may not be comprehensible the those who are barren - bereft
of spiritual insight and divine love. The spiritual bond with
the Shaikh for the sake of developing the Love of Allah produces
Roohani fragrance in the relationship. Such fragrance becomes
spiritually perceptible according to the degree of truth in
the mutual love of the spiritual partners in this celestial
Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) came to Delhi. Shaikh Haji Abdul
Wahhab Bukhaari who was a descendent of Sayyid Jalaalud Deen
Bukhaari, sent the written manuscript of his tafseer to Shaikh
Abdul Quddus. When Hadhrat opened the manuscript his eyes fell
on the aayat pertaining ot the tahaarat (purity) of the household
members of Rasulullah (sal lal laho tala alaihi wasalam). In
its tafseer, Shaikh Abdul Wahhab stated that the successful
end (Khaatimah bil Khair - death with Imaan) of all descendents
of Rasulullah (s.a.a.w.) is assured. Their death will most certainly
be beautiful. Shaikh Abdul Quddus wrote in the margin: "This
view is in conflict of the view of the Ahlus Sunnah was Jama'at."
He then returned the manuscript. Meanwhile, the Ulama of that
place deliberated many days on this question. Finally, all accepted
the ruling by Shaikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh).
Imaam of the Musjid did not arrive on time, hence his nephew,
Shaikh Abdul Ghani went forward and became the Imaam. He paused
slightly beween Lazeenaa and An-umtaa. Hadhrat Shaikh repeated
the Salaat and furiously said: "Young men should be prevented
from Imamate and invalidating the Salaat of the people. Does
he not know even that the mousul and silah (these are terms
of Arabic grammer) join to form a single word; hence it is improper
to create an interruption between the two. Waqf between them
is not permissible.
Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (rahmatullah alayh) narrates several
anecdotes of Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi (rahmatullah
alayh), in his book, Assunnatul Jaliyyatu fi Chishtiyyatil Ulyah.
Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) had seven sons who all were men
of virtue and excellence. They were educated in Delhi. Whenever
they wished to meet their father, he (Hadhrat) would himself
go to Delhi to avoid any disruption to their education.
Deen (rahmatullah alayh) states in Lataa-if-e-Quddusi that Hadhrat
Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) passed away on the 11th Jamadil
Ukhraa 977 Hijri. On Sunday, Hadhrat became feverish and started
to shiver. On Friday his condition improved, enabling him to
perform Salaat comfortably. After Salaat, the fever resumed.
Even during his maradhul maut (the last illness) his ibaadat
did not undergo any change. He remained fully engrossed in ibaadat
despite his illness. At the very end, he signaled for wudhu
and he performed two raka'ts Salaat. He made Ruku' and Sajdah
by means of signs. On the ninth day, on Monday, while performing
Salaat, he passed away. After the demise of Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul
Quddus Gangohi, Shaikh Ruknud Deen after completing the ghust,
placed his hand on the blessed breast of Hadhrat. He felt the
movement of Thikr-e-Qalbi (Thikr of the heart).
record the year of his demise as 945 Hijri. Hadhrat's age was
84 years. For 35 years he had lived in Radoli. In 896 Hijri,
he settled in Shahaabad on the request and insistence of Umar
Khan Kaahi who was a minister of Sultan Sikander Ludhi. He also
lived for 35 years in Shahaabad. In 893 Hijri, during the reign
of Zahirud Deen Babaa, Hadhrat Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) settled
in Gangoh and lived 14 years there. Although there are different
versions regarding the year of his demise, the most reliable
view is 944 Hijri.
Gangoh is divided into two areas. The one area commonly known
as Gangoh is the city. The other area is to the west of the
city and is known as Seraa-e. This area at the time of Hadhrat's
arrival was a complete forest. It is here where Shaikh Gangohi
took up residence. The development of this area commenced about
this time. It is here where the three Pillers of the Chishtiyyah
Silsilah (Hadhrat Abdul Quddus Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh),
Hadhrat Shah Abu Saeed Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh), and Hadhrat
Imaam-e-Rabbaani Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi) are lying in
Shah Abdul Quddus Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) had many khulafaa.
The well-known ones are Shaikh Bhooru, Shaikh Umar, Shaikh Abdul
Ghafoor A'zampoori, Shaikh Ruknud Deen and Shaikh Abdul Kabeer
who is better known as Balaa Peer. The latter two are his sons
as well as his spiritual offspiring. Hadhrat Shaikh Jalaalud
Deen Thaanesri (rahmatullah alayh) is also his senior khalifaah.
be upon them all above.
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