is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four months of the
year in which fighting is prohibited. Since the Islamic calendar is lunar, Moharram
moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar.
is so called because it was unlawful to fight during this month; the word is derived
from the word haram meaning forbidden. It is held to be the most sacred
of all the months, excluding Ramadan. Some Muslims fast during these days. The
tenth day of Moharram is called Yaumu-l 'Ashurah, meaning, the tenth day,
and it is a day of voluntary fasting. Fasting differs among the Muslim groupings;
mainstream Shia Muslims stop eating and drinking during sunlight hours but do
not fast until the evening. Sunni Muslims also fast during Moharram and on either
the ninth or the eleventh day, the choice of which additional day being at the
discretion of the individual.
Battle of Karbala took place on Moharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)
in Karbala, in present day Iraq. On one side were supporters and relatives of
Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali; on the other side was a military detachment
from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph.
ibn Ali's group consisted of notable members of Muhammad's close relatives, around
72 men, of which some were either very old or very young. Husayn and some members
of his group were accompanied by some of the women and children from their families.
On the opposite side, the armed forces of Yazid I were led by Umar ibn Sa'ad and
contained at least 40,000 men
traditions state that Husayn ibn Ali's group killed over 20% of the enemy. Husayn
ibn Ali himself killed 900 soldiers, despite the fact that he was thirsty and
hungry for 3 days. It is stated that he died to resurrect Islam.
battle field was a desert region located beside one of the branches of the Euphrates
River. The battle resulted in the military defeat of Husayn ibn Ali's group, the
death of almost all of his men, and the captivity of all women and children.
Battle of Karbala is one of the most significant battles in the history of Shia
battle also had significant effects on formation of subsequent revolts against
the Umayyad dynasty.
battle of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated during an annual 10-day period held every
Moharram, culminating on its tenth day, Ashura. complete
On 1 Moharram, the Islamic New Year is observed by some Muslims.
On 1 Moharram, Shi'ite Muslims begin the observance of the Commemoration
of Moharram which marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala. Imam Husayn
On 7 Moharram, access to water was banned on Husayn by Yazid's
On 10 Moharram, the Day of Ashurah is commemorated by Muslims as the
anniversary of the death of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of Muhammad. But the
Shi'ite Muslims attach much greater importance to this day.
On 25 Moharram,
Fourth Imam Hazrat Zain-ul-Abedin was poisoned.
On 27 Moharram, Mesum was